Center for Bible Study

 

 

CENTER FOR BIBLE STUDY 

Presents 

EXPLORING THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW

Taught by The Rev. Peter Rodgers

Thursdays at 7pm

September 8th-Novermber 10th

In-person at St. Augustine/Hybrid

$50, pay here "Adult Ed"

Register at staugustine@staugustineepiscopal.com

 

Join Zoom Meeting

 

 

Exploring the Old Testament in the New:

Session 4:  Application  

September 29, 2022

 

Follow up from Prof. Max Botner’s presentation on “Selection”

 

Isaiah 53 (52:13-53:12)

     1 Peter 2:18-25

 

     Matthew 8:17

 

     John 12:38

 

     Acts 8:32-33

 

Psalm 22.

     Matthew 27:46 (Mark 15:34)

 

     Matthew 27:35 and Parallels.

 

     Hebrews 2:12

 

Exegetical Methods (Methods of interpretation)

     (Seven rules of Hillel the Elder, died 10 AD – Exploring, 38-40

 

Terms and Techniques

     Targums

     Midrash

     Pesher

     Typology

     Haftarah

 

New Material since Exploring.  Matthew Bates, The Birth of the Trinity.

Psalm 110:1,   Psalm 2:7, Psalm 40:6

 

 

Exploring the Old Testament in the New

Session 3: Selection

Guest Professor: Prof. Max Botner

Key Question: Why do NT writers select certain OT passage? Is there a method to the madness?

 

I. A brief review of Selection:

  • C. H. Dodd’s According to the Scriptures (15 passages; listed in Rodgers, Exploring, 27)
  • Donald Juel, Messianic Exegesis
  • Richard Hays Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul
  • Ongoing work in Hebrew Bible and early Jewish exegesis

 

II. Assumptions of Selection

  • Exegetical principles, such as gezera shawa (connecting two ostensibly disparate texts based on shared lexemes), are rooted in scribal traditions that are well attested in the Hebrew Bible (e.g., Teeter, Scribal Laws; Fishbane, Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel)
  • Biblical interpretation happens at the intersection of tradition (what the Scriptures say) and experience (discerning what God is doing right now).
  • Ancient Christian interpretation is charismatic and messianic
    • Charismatic: based on the teachings of an authoritative figure who unlocks the mysteries of the scriptures in the “last days” (cf. the Teacher of Righteousness in the Dead Sea Scrolls)
    •  Messianic: focused on a messiah figure
      • Messiah texts: Gen 49:10; Num 24:17; 2 Sam 7:12-13; Isa 11:1-2; Amos 9:11; Dan 7:13-14 (Novenson, Christ Among the Messiahs, 57-58); one finds in the NT citations of or allusions to all of these passages.
        • Psalms of David and royal psalms
      • All messiah language (discourse about a messiah figure) is “creatively biblical” (see Novenson, The Grammar of Messianism)

 

III. Examples of Selection

  • Psalm 2
    • Messianic appointment and coronation (Psalm 2:7)
      • Mark 1:11 parr.; Rom 1:3-4; Heb 1:5; 5:5
    • Messianic battle and its implication for Christ’s followers (Psalm 2:2)
      • Acts 4:25-27; Rev 2:26-27
  • Isaiah 53
    • An open question: Who is the servant of the Lord?
    • Can the suffering servant be the messiah?
    • The servant (Isa 40–55) and his servants (Isa 56–66)
      • Jesus and the disciples: Acts 4:27–29
      • Paul and Barnabas: Acts 13:47 (Isa 49:6)
      • Jesus the model servant/slave (1 Pet 2:16, 18-25)
  • Psalm 110
    • The Lord God and the Lord Jesus (Ps 110:1; 109:1 LXX) (Mark 12:35–37 parr.)
      • Begotten before the dawn of time (109:3 LXX)
    • A priest-king in the order of Melchizedek (Ps 110:4; 109:4 LXX) (Heb 7)

 

IV. Resources for Further Study

  • Matthew V. Novenson, Christ Among the Messiahs: Christ Language in Paul and Messiah Language in Ancient Judaism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
  • Max Botner, Jesus Christ as the Son of David in the Gospel of Mark (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019).

 

SESSION 2,  EXPLORING THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW: INTRODUCTION 

 

Brief Review of session 1. Plus “Manuscript show and tell”

 

   Papyrus P52 ((c. 125 AD)

 

   Papyrus P90 (Circa 189 AD)

 

   Papyrus P66. (Circa 200 AD)

 

   Papyrus P75. (Circa 175-225 AD)

 

   Papyrus P49. (Late third century CE)

 

   Codex Sinaiticus (350 AD)

 

   Codex Vaticanus. (350 AD)

 

   Minuscule manuscript 1739 (Tenth Century)

 

Introduction:

 

   Quotations with a formula

     Matthew (1:23, 2:6,2:15,2:17-18, 3:3, 4:15-16,8:17)

 

     John 12:38, Acts 1:20, Acts 28:25, Romans 9:25, 10:20

 

     1 Peter 2:6, Romans 15:9-13

   Allusions and echoes without a formula, 1 Peter 2:18-25, Mark 1:11

 

Richard Hays,  Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul (1989). Reading Backwards (2014).

 

 

Week 1 SESSION 1: INTRODUCTION AND TEXT FORM

Introduction to the course

Definitions:

     Quotations

     Allusions

     Echoes

     Narratives

     Intertextuality

FORM: The text form of quotations

Isaiah 40:3. Mark 1:3 

Isaiah 42:1. Matthew 12:18

 

Break

 

Isaiah 61 and Luke 4

Isaiah 61

New Revised Standard Version

 

61 The spirit of the Lord God is upon me
because the Lord has anointed me;
he has sent me to bring good news to the oppressed,
to bind up the brokenhearted,
to proclaim liberty to the captives
and release to the prisoners,
2 to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor
and the day of vengeance of our God

 

Luke 4:18-19

New Revised Standard Version Updated Edition

 

18 “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed me
to bring good news to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives
and recovery of sight to the blind,
to set free those who are oppressed,
19 to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.”

 

Psalm 40 and Hebrews 10

Joel 2 and Acts 2

The Old Testament in Paul

Habakkuk 2:4 in the New Testament

 

Homework (Exploring 9-10)  Acts 2:25-28. Psalm 16:8-11